Water and Sewer

It is impossible to imagine the full functioning and normal conditions in buildings and structures without the presence of basic communications and engineering systems, including hot water supply (HWS), cold water supply (CWS) and sewerage system. Water supply system and sewage is a complex of engineering structures designed for the uninterrupted supply of cold and hot water to consumers, as well as the discharge of “wastewater”.

Water and Sewer

Water supply

HWS and HVS systems supply water from external networks via internal networks to the consumer. Water meter unit or water meter is installed between the external and internal networks. Cold water is supplied with a temperature of up to 30° C, hot water- with a temperature of 50-75° C. According to the type of purpose, the water supply systems are divided into:

  • drinking water supply;
  • fire water supply;
  • industrial water supply;
  • rain harvesting water supply.

The cold water system includes the following elements:

  • water input;
  • water meter (counter);
  • pressure booster;
  • spare and control tanks;
  • internal water supply network;
  • pipeline (water folding) fittings.

The hot water system is complemented by a device for heating water. Hot water for heating, as a rule, is the heat carrier of hot water supply. Heating water passing through the heat exchanger heats the water from the cold water supply system, making it hot.

The temperature of cold water in the water supply system depends on the weather and the location of the water source. Sources are groundwater (artesian water) and surface water bodies. Cold and hot water supplies use the same water, just a part of cold water is heated and used for hot water supply.


The sewage system is designed to receive, discharge, and treat wastewater. Wastewater is divided into domestic (from sanitary facilities), storm (atmospheric) and industrial. Sewerage is divided into internal and external. The structure of the internal sewage system includes appliances and indoor networks. The external sewage system includes external networks (yard and city), water treatment and water discharge facilities.

External sewer systems are divided into all-seam, separation and semi-separation.

The combined system collects all types of wastewater into a common network, then refers to the treatment plant.

Separating sewerage system is developed in the form of two networks: household and stormwater.

The stormwater system is designed to collect atmospheric and industrial wastewater that does not require treatment before discharge into the reservoir.

The household system is designed to collect both domestic and polluted industrial wastewater.

The internal sewage system in residential and industrial buildings is being developed as an economic household one. There are also internal drainage systems in buildings for diverting atmospheric water. Discharge is carried out in the storm sewer, and in case of its absence -in trays on the pavement in front of the building. The drainage outlet is equipped with a siphon, which protects the system from overcooling. Sanitary facilities (sinks, bathtubs, toilet bowls) are sources of wastewater in buildings. All sanitary facilities are equipped with flushing devices from the water supply system, and wastewater is discharged into the sewage system through hydraulic valves (siphons). In order to prevent sewage gases from entering the premises, the hydraulic valve is designed as a U-shaped pipe filled with water. Siphons, as a rule, are combined with revision openings used for cleaning clogs in pipes. Receivers are connected through various shaped parts (knees, crosses, tees, etc.) to the sewer risers. The risers are mounted from cast iron, asbestos or plastic socket pipes. In the attic, the riser continues as an exhaust pipe, preventing the ingress of gases into the living quarters.